Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British.
Confederate General Stonewall Jackson died after being accidentally shot by his own troops.
The United States’ first transcontinental railroad was completed with a ceremony in Promontory Summit, Utah.
J. Edgar Hoover became director of the FBI.
Winston Churchill succeeded Neville Chamberlain as British prime minister.
Nelson Mandela was sworn in as South Africa’s first black president.